Obtain Building Characteristics
- Construction materials.
- Construction material properties: U-values, R-values, shading coefficients, solar heat gain coefficients.
- Orientation, N, S, E, W, NE, SE, SW, NW, etc.
- External/internal shading.
- Occupancy type and time of day.
Select outdoor Design Weather Conditions
- Wind direction and speed.
- Conditions in selecting outdoor design weather conditions:
- Type of structure: heavy, medium, or light.
- Is structure insulated? If the structure is heated or cooled, it must be insulated accord- ing to code.
- Is structure exposed to high wind?
- Infiltration or ventilation load.
- Amount of glass.
- Time of building occupancy.
- Type of building occupancy.
- Length of reduced indoor temperature.
- What is daily temperature range, minimum/maximum?
- Are there significant variations from ASHRAE weather data?
- Select indoor design temperature to be maintained in each space.
- Estimate temperatures in unheated spaces.
- Select and/or compute U-values for walls, roof, windows, doors, partitions, etc.
- Determine area of walls, windows, floors, doors, partitions, etc.
- Compute heat transmission losses for all walls, windows, floors, doors, partitions, etc.
- Compute heat losses from basement and/or grade level slab floors.
- Compute infiltration heat losses.
- Compute ventilation heat loss required.
- Compute sum of all heat losses indicated in items G, H, I, and J shown earlier.
- For a building with sizable and steady internal heat release, a credit may be taken, but only a portion of the total. Use extreme caution!!! For most buildings, credit for heat gain should not be taken.
- Include morning warm-up for buildings with intermittent use and night set-back. See for code restrictions on excess HVAC system capacity permitted for morning warm-up.
- Consider equipment and materials that will be brought into the building below the inside design temperature.
- Heating load calculations should be conducted using industry accepted methods to determine actual heating load requirements.
- Heating load calculations are often performed using computer simulation pro- grams. These programs greatly simplify the calculation process; however, the basic procedures and input information required are the same.
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