Heating and Cooling
The first step in calculating the heating and cooling loads is to establish the project’s heating design criteria:
- • Ambient dry-bulb or wet-bulb temperature (or relative humidity), wind direction and speed
- • Site elevation above sea level, latitude
- • Space dry-bulb or wet-bulb temperature (or relative humidity), ventilation air
- • Internal or process heating or cooling and exhaust air requirements
- • Hours of operation of the areas or spaces to be heated or cooled (day, night, weekday, weekends, and holidays).
Even when the owner or user has established the project design criteria, the designer should determine that they are reasonable.
The winter outdoor design temperature should be based preferably on a minimum temperature that will not be exceeded for 99 percent of the total hours in the months of December, January, and February (a total of 2160 h) in the northern hemisphere and the months of June, July, and August in the southern hemisphere (a total of 2208 h). However, for energy conservation considerations, some government agencies and the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90-75, Energy Conservation in New Building Design, require the outdoor winter design temperature to be based on a temperature that will not be exceeded 97.5 percent of the same total heating hours.
Similarly, the summer outdoor design dry-bulb temperature should be based on the lowest dry-bulb temperature that will not be exceeded 2l /2 percent of the total hours in June through September (a total of 2928 h) in the northern hemisphere and in December through March in the southern hemisphere (a total of 2904 h). For energy conservation reasons, some government agencies require the outdoor summer design temperature to be based on a dry-bulb temperature that will not be exceeded 5 percent of the same total cooling hours.
The U.S. government has set 680 F (2O0C) as the maximum design indoor temperature for personnel comfort during the heating season in areas where employees work. In manufacturing areas the process requirements govern the actual temperature. From an energy conservation point of view, if a process requires a space temperature greater than 50 F (2.80C) above or below 680 F (2O0C), the space should, if possible, be treated separately and operate independently from the general personnel comfort areas.
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